Suitable pond depths will vary depending on livestock species and safety issues. Ultimately the deeper the pond the better but it's not always possible to achieve your desired depth due to hidden obstacles. If the ground is difficult to excavate, it may also be worth considering a partially raised or above ground pond to provide the depth required. Raised pond edges also act as a seating area for you to rest and watch the wildlife in action.
For simple nature ponds we would recommend a minimum depth of 50cm
For Goldfish ponds we would recommend a minimum depth of 75cm
For Koi ponds we would recommend a minimum depth of 1.2m
Deeper ponds will function better as they allow for more oxygen to be contained and the highest content will always be at the base of the pond. This oxygen will then better allow for aerobic breakdown of waste and silt. Deeper ponds allow fish to rest nearer the bottom during winter where the water temperature will be slightly warmer than the surface, offering a more comfortable zone during semi-hibernation.
You should also consider that with livestock ponds, you may at some point face a heron attempting to steal your fish. Herons can and will wade into water up to 40cm deep, so digging deeper and creating steep walls to your pond can help reduce the Heron’s chances of a successful lunch at your expense.
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